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ES+H Multifamily Building Upgrades_508c_02 09 2016

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Page 44 of 100

Energy Savings Plus Health | INDOOR AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES FOR MULTIFAMILY BUILDING UPGRADES 45 Compartmentalization PRIORITY ISSUE 16.0 COMPARTMENTALIZATION TO PREVENT ODOR OR UNWANTED AIR TRANSFER ASSESSMENT PROTOCOLS (AP) MINIMUM ACTIONS (MA) EXPANDED ACTIONS (EA) AP 16.1 Determine Building Locations with Strong Pollutant Sources Determine which areas or dwelling units in the building are likely to be sources of irritating pollutants or noxious odors or where unwanted air transfer occurs. Refer to complaint logs and building owner/property manager reports, and perform an IAQ walkthrough inspection. Include common areas and nonresidential spaces in the building (e.g., retail spaces, fitness facilities, beauty and nail salons). To the extent possible, work with the building owner, property manager and other occupants to identify IAQ concerns that arise from pollutant migration among dwelling units, common areas and commercial spaces. Refer to EPA's Building Air Quality Action Plan for more information on IAQ walkthrough inspections. AP 16.2 Assess Spaces for Compartmentalization Identify spaces in the building with strong pollutant sources that could be isolated using compartmentalization techniques, including dwelling units, common areas, nonresidential spaces (e.g., conference/meeting rooms, health club/exercise rooms, retail spaces, attached garages, combustion appliance rooms, utility shafts, elevators, stairwells). The intent is to reduce pollutant and odor migration by limiting uncontrolled airflow and cross contamination among spaces, achieved by air sealing and controlling pressure differences. • Identify the pollutant migration pathways due to pressure differences within the building and across the building envelope, which can be caused by a variety of factors (e.g., thermal stack effect, mechanical ventilation if not properly designed and maintained, inadequate air balance, operation of combustion appliances). • Make visual observations or use infrared thermography, chemical smoke and/or pressure testing to identify all penetrations at the perimeter of the space/dwelling unit MA 16.1 Minimize Pollutant Transfer Between Spaces Follow the guidance in the order listed below for the most effective strategy: (1) Source Control, (2) Ventilation and Air Pressure Control, and (3) Air Sealing. 1. Source Control If pollutant sources and odors were identified and can be readily addressed see the relevant priority issues in this Guide. For example – • For sewer gases or other pollutants, see Priority Issue 6.0 Belowground Contaminants. • For suspected VOCs, see Priority Issue 10.0 Building Products/ Materials Emissions. • For tobacco smoke transfer control, see Priority Issue 14.0 Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS). • For contaminants from attached garages, see Priority Issue 7.0 Garage Air Pollutants. • For wood smoke, see Priority Issue 15.0 Wood Smoke and Other Solid Fuel Emissions. • For emissions from vented combustion appliances, see Priority Issue 11.0 Vented Combustion Appliances. • For emissions from unvented combustion appliances, see Priority Issue 12.0 Unvented Combustion Appliances. • For cooking odors, see Priority Issue 21.0 Local Exhaust Ventilation. 2. Ventilation and Air Pressure Control • Follow the Minimum Actions in Priority Issues 18.0 through 21.0, as applicable to the type of ventilation system. • If an existing ventilation system relies on central exhaust, repair or replace any balancing devices at each exhaust point, as needed. • Provide dedicated pathways for make-up ventilation air in dwelling units, as required under the EA 16.1 Expanded Ventilation and Air Pressure Control Follow the Expanded Actions guidance in Priority Issues 18.0 through 21.0, as applicable to the type of ventilation system. Reduce excess negative pressures inside the dwelling units resulting from unbalanced exhaust systems. If the existing ventilation exhaust system relies on a central exhaust, specify and install a new balancing device at each exhaust point with a minimum operating pressure to help ensure that required airflow and system performance are not significantly affected by stack effect. EA 16.2 Expanded Air Sealing for Dwelling Units If the building is undergoing extensive rehabilitation, extend compartmentalization efforts to all dwelling units. Provide air sealing in all separating walls, floors and ceilings to achieve compartmentalization within each dwelling unit, with an airtightness of 0.3 cfm per square foot of enclosure area (i.e., sum of all wall, ceiling and floor areas) at 50 Pascals pressure difference, or as low a pressure difference as possible, during a blower door test conducted according to either ASTM E779-10 Standard Test Method for Determining Air Leakage Rate by Fan Pressurization or ASTM E1827-11 Standard Test Methods for Determining Airtightness of Buildings Using an Orifice Blower Door. The test shall be conducted as if the dwelling unit were exposed to outdoor air on all sides and on top and bottom by opening doors and windows in adjacent dwelling units. Refer to ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2013, Section 8 for multifamily buildings.

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